Reprinted with the permission of LexisNexis.
116 Cal. App.
4th 629; 10 Cal. Rptr. 3d 560; 2004 Cal. App.
LEXIS 276; 2004 Daily Journal DAR 2931
ASSOCIATION FOR A
CLEANER ENVIRONMENT, Plaintiff and Appellant,
COLLEGE DISTRICT et al., Defendants and Respondents.
COURT OF APPEAL OF CALIFORNIA, FIFTH DISTRICT
February 4, 2004
Trutanich . Michel, C. D. Michel, Jeffery L. Caufield
and Glenn S. McRoberts for Plaintiff and Appellant.
Law Offices of Marilyn Kaplan, Marilyn Kaplan;
Bingham McCutchen, Stephen L. Kostka
and Geoffrey L. Robinson for Defendants and Respondents.
J., with Dibiaso, Acting P. J., and Gomes, J.,
association of citizens appeals the denial of its petition for a writ of
mandate and contends that a community college violated the California
Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) n1 when it failed to perform an initial
environmental study in connection with its decision to close and remove a
campus shooting range and transfer certain classes to a range off campus. The
community college argues (1) its decision and actions were not a
"project" subject to CEQA, (2) if a project existed, it was exempt
from CEQA, and (3) the matter is moot because the decisions have been
We conclude the whole of the community
college's action constitutes a project for purposes of CEQA, the project is not
exempt, and the matter is not moot. Accordingly, we reverse and remand to the
superior court with direction to issue a writ of mandate requiring that an
initial environmental study be conducted.
FACTS AND PROCEEDINGS
Appellant Association for a Cleaner
Environment (ACE) is a nonprofit organization and alleges that it represents
citizens who (1) object to the destruction of an all-weather shooting range at
Modesto Junior College (MJC Range) and (2) are concerned with the failure of
the respondents to comply with CEQA. Donald G. Clark n2 is an individual
residing in San Joaquin County and a professor emeritus at Modesto
Junior College (MJC).
ACE and Clark filed a petition for writ of
mandate against respondents Yosemite Community College District (District) and
the District's Board of Trustees (Board). The District consists of (1) Columbia College in Columbia and (2) MJC. Chancellor Pamila Fisher is the chief administrative officer of the
District. The seven-member Board governs the District.
In 1975, the MJC Range was built on the west campus of
MJC. The MJC Range was used for firearms courses
offered through the Criminal Justice Training Program and the Administration of
Justice Program. The MJC Range also was used by law enforcement
officers, individuals from a private security department and community service
The minutes of the Board meeting conducted
on April 10, 2001, provide the following description
of events that led to the current litigation:
"... Since 1975, the campus has grown
considerably and the student population will more than double when the Sierra
Halls are fully occupied. In addition, we have added four new child care
facilities. This year, a new soccer field was built immediately south of the
range based on plans for the range's removal. Parking lots are scheduled to be
built immediately west of the range next year, before Sierra Halls open in the
summer of 2002. Eventually two more classroom buildings will be built nearby
and the Agriculture Complex is planned for the current site.
"Although the Firing Range has served as an important part of
the Criminal Justice Training Center during the last 26 years, it has been a
source of concern to students, staff and neighbors. Consequently, the Master
Plan adopted by the Board of Trustees in 1991, and the Joint Powers Agreement
with Stanislaus County and the City of Modesto adopted in 1998, called for the
Firing Range to be removed after the firearms classes are moved to the new
facility built by the JPA, which includes the Modesto Police and the Stanislaus
County Sheriff's Office. This plan was consistent with the moving of the entire
Criminal Justice Training Program to its new facility on Crows Landing Road in 1998. Since then, all other West
Campus CJTC old buildings have been removed.
"The new [Modesto Police Department]
firing range, which is part of a larger complex including equestrian and canine
training, will be completed some time in late summer or early fall. When it is
complete, our classes, our weapons arsenal, and any useable equipment, and our
range master will be located at the new site. The CJTC Academy, Modesto Police, and Stanislaus
County Sheriff, as well as other law enforcement agencies, comprise 90 percent
of the activity at the range and will be served there. In addition, our two
classes per term which are open to the public also will be offered there.
"Thus, the remaining issue before the
Board of Trustees was the future status of the old Firing Range once the program is relocated.
Operating two facilities would incur significant extra costs for staff,
utilities, maintenance, and liability insurance. It is staff's conclusion that
it is inappropriate to have an active public firing range on a growing and
heavily populated campus. Complaints from students, staff and neighbors
regarding safety and noise, as well as concerns about environmental issues,
also contribute to this conclusion. The facility could be sold to a private
entity, donated to a public agency, demolished, or stay vacant until a later
In addition to the foregoing reference to
plans for removal of the MJC Range, the administrative record contains
other statements about its removal. A March 1, 2001, letter from the District Director
of Facilities and Plant Operations, Maria Baker, to Chancellor Fisher states:
"The [MJC] Facilities Master Plan for the West Campus assumes the removal
of the firing range. This has been noted on all the plans for the MJC West
Campus at least since 1994 and may even pre-date that time." Also in March
2001, Chancellor Fisher wrote two letters referring to plans for removal of the
The joint powers agreement referenced in the
April 10, 2001, minutes is titled "Joint
Exercise of Powers Agreement of the Criminal Justice Training Agency by and
between the Yosemite Community College District[,] the County of Stanislaus and the City of Modesto" (unnecessary capitalization
omitted) and is dated as of July 1, 1997 (JPA). The JPA was entered for
purposes of outlining the duties, responsibilities and obligations of each
party as they relate to providing educational services for the MJC Regional
Criminal Justice Training Program.
Because of concerns about lead
contamination and safety, the District had the MJC Range examined by an environmental firm,
an architect and its insurance provider. Hazard Management Services, Inc. (HMS)
took soil and wipe samples from the MJC Range for purposes of determining levels
of lead contamination and reported its results to the District. HMS concluded
that the level of lead in the soil samples exceeds California regulatory levels and therefore
qualified the materials as hazardous waste.
After visiting the MJC Range, the architect concluded (1) the
range was in need of maintenance, (2) direct shots were not escaping the range,
but bullets or fragments were breaking out after initial impact, and (3) the
District should confront the serious personal safety issue of escaping bullets
Valley Insurance Program Joint Powers
Authority sent the District a letter stating that from a general liability and
workers' compensation risk control perspective, it considered the location of
an outdoor firing range adjacent to the educational complex and recreational
athletic field to be unusual and out of the ordinary.
After receiving information from HMS, the
architect, the insurance provider and many other sources, the Board adopted the
resolution that is at the center of this appeal. The minutes from that October
15, 2001, meeting provide: "A motion was made by Mr. Neumann, seconded by
Mr. Allen, that the Board of Trustees authorize proceeding with conducting lead
abatement at the MJC firing range site, closing the range and donating
salvageable portions of the firing range to the Tuolumne County Sheriff's
Office, and preparing an agreement with the County of Tuolumne regarding the
transfer of this property and the provision of firearms training at their new range.
[P] The motion carried by a vote of 6 ayes ... and 1 nay ... ."
Subsequently, an addendum dated October 18, 2001, was added to the District's previously drafted request for
bids on the lead cleanup of the MJC Range and surrounding area. The addendum
stated that the District had decided to close the MJC Range but that the decision to dismantle
or demolish it was still in question and would not be decided for some time.
Nevertheless, the administrative record contains no minutes showing that the
Board changed the resolution adopted at the October
15, 2001, meeting.
27, 2001, ACE and Clark filed a petition for writ of mandate alleging that
the Board's action on October 15, 2001, failed to comply with CEQA. After
an administrative record was prepared, the District and Board filed a motion
for judgment pursuant to Code of Civil Procedure section 1094. The motion was
fully briefed by the parties and oral argument was heard by the superior court.
On January 9, 2003, the superior court issued a minute
order denying the petition for writ of mandate and stating: "Court finds
that there was no project subject to [CEQA]. Further, the issue is now
moot." ACE filed a timely notice of appeal.
I. Application of CEQA and Preliminary
Review by Agency
Generally, CEQA "shall apply to
discretionary projects proposed to be carried out or approved by public
agencies ... ." (§ 21080, subd. (a).) To
determine whether a proposed activity falls within this mandatory language and
therefore is subject to CEQA, a public agency is required to conduct a
preliminary review. (See Davidon Homes v.
City of San Jose (1997) 54 Cal.App.4th 106, 112 [62 Cal. Rptr. 2d 612], citing Cal. Code Regs.,
tit. 14, §§ 15060, 15061.)n3 This preliminary review is the first step in the
three-step process used to decide which document, if any, is required for CEQA
compliance. (Guidelines, § 15002, subd. (k)(1).) n4
The second step, if reached, requires the agency to conduct an initial study.
(Guidelines, §§ 15002, subd. (k)(2), 15063.) In this
case, ACE contends the District should have reached the second step and
conducted such a study.
The determinations that an agency makes
during a preliminary review are subject to judicial review under the abuse of
discretion standard contained in section 21168.5. (See Davidon
Homes v. City of San Jose, supra, 54 Cal.App.4th at p. 113.)
"Abuse of discretion is established if the agency has not proceeded in a
manner required by law or if the determination or decision is not supported by
substantial evidence." (§ 21168.5; Western States Petroleum Assn. v.
Superior Court (1995) 9 Cal.4th 559, 573 [38 Cal. Rptr. 2d
139, 888 P.2d 1268].)
A. Activities Properly Considered As a
A number of issues may arise during a
preliminary review. n5 The first issue we address is "whether the subject
matter of the action constitutes a 'project' subject to CEQA." (Remy et
al., Guide to the Cal. Environmental Quality Act (CEQA), supra, at p.
Under CEQA, a "project" is
"an activity which may cause either a direct physical change in the
environment, or a reasonably foreseeable indirect physical change in the
environment, and which is any of the following: [P] (a) An activity directly
undertaken by any public agency. [P] (b) An activity undertaken by a person
which is supported, in whole or in part, through contracts, grants, subsidies,
loans, or other forms of assistance from one or more public agencies. [P] (c)
An activity that involves the issuance to a person of a lease, permit, license,
certificate, or other entitlement for use by one or more public agencies."
This definition is amplified in the
Guidelines, which define a "project" as "the whole of an
action, which has a potential for resulting in either a direct physical change
in the environment, or a reasonably foreseeable indirect physical change in the
environment ... ." (Guidelines, § 15378, subd.
(a), italics added.)
"Whether an act constitutes a
'project' within the purview of CEQA 'is an issue of law which can be decided
on undisputed data in the record on appeal,' and thus presents no question of
deference to agency discretion or review of substantiality of evidence.
[Citation.]" ( Kaufman & Broad-South Bay, Inc. v. Morgan
Hill Unified School Dist. (1992) 9 Cal.App.4th 464, 470 [11 Cal. Rptr. 2d 792].)
Stated otherwise, "[w]hether a particular activity constitutes a project in the
first instance is a question of law." ( Black Property Owners Assn. v.
City of Berkeley (1994) 22 Cal.App.4th 974, 984 [28 Cal. Rptr. 2d 305].)
Addressing what constitutes a project for
purposes of CEQA, the Supreme Court has stated that CEQA is "to be
interpreted in such manner as to afford the fullest possible protection to the
environment within the reasonable scope of the statutory language." ( Friends
of Mammoth v. Board of Supervisors (1972) 8 Cal.3d 247, 259 [104 Cal. Rptr. 761, 502 P.2d 1049].) From this principle, "it
is clear that the requirements of CEQA 'cannot be avoided by chopping up
proposed projects into bite-sized pieces' which, when taken individually, may
have no significant adverse effect on the environment ( Plan for Arcadia,
Inc. v. City Council of Arcadia (1974) 42 Cal. App. 3d 712, 726 [117 Cal. Rptr. 96]
... ." ( Lake County Energy Council v. County of Lake (1977) 70
Cal. App. 3d 851, 854 [139 Cal. Rptr. 176].) n6
In this case, the pivotal question concerns
what actions should be considered as part of the potential project. ACE
contends the actions to be analyzed include a combination of the closure,
cleanup and destruction of the MJC Range as well as the transfer of the
shooting range operations to a new location, which transfer effectively creates
an extension campus at the city range. Respondents dispute ACE's
contention that the Board took action to destroy the MJC Range. They assert here, and contend the
administrative record shows, that the Board did not choose to demolish the
range at the time it decided to close the range and clean up the lead
contamination. Further, according to respondents, "no decision has yet
been made to remove the physical facility." In response, ACE asserts the
evidence is overwhelming that (1) the District has decided to close and
dismantle the MJC Range and transfer its environmentally
troubled firing range operations; and (2) these actions are part of a single,
We start with the premise that "the
whole of an action" must be considered in determining whether or not a
"project" exists. (Guidelines, § 15378, subd.
(a).) After a careful review of the administrative record, we disagree with the
respondents' assertion that it shows the District has not yet decided to remove
the MJC Range. The record includes the following
information to the contrary. First, the Board minutes clearly indicate that
plans for the removal of the MJC Range have been in place for almost a
decade. Second, these plans have been reiterated in correspondence by District
personnel. Third, the implementation of the range removal plans has been
advanced by the District's decisions to develop the land near the range and by
its neglect of range maintenance, thereby increasing the safety concerns
arising from range operation.
15, 2001, the Board voted to conduct lead abatement at the range, close it, and
donate salvageable portions to the Tuolumne County Sheriff's Office (Tuolumne). An agreement regarding this
donation was to be drafted and would include a provision for firearms training
at a new range to be constructed in Tuolumne County. That part of the Board's
resolution which related to donating salvageable portions of the range to
Tuolumne stemmed from a report given by District's Chancellor Fisher, at the
October 15th Board meeting, in which she announced a new development--to wit,
Tuolumne's interest in taking salvage from the range. On October 18, 2001, the District issued an addendum to its request for bids on
lead abatement which stated the decision to "dismantle or demolish"
the range was still in question. That the District could not yet say with
certainty whether the range was to be dismantled or demolished, however, does
not change the Board's decision, made on October 15, to destroy it. We note
that respondents supply nothing, save the ambiguous language of the October
18th addendum, and in the face of overwhelming evidence to the contrary, to
support the assertion that no decision to remove the MJC Range has yet been
Because CEQA must be construed to
effectuate its purpose of protecting the environment, and because a group of
interrelated actions may not be chopped into bite-size pieces to avoid CEQA
review, we conclude that the closure and removal of the MJC Range, the cleanup
activity, and the transfer of shooting range activity and classes to another
range are all part of a single, coordinated endeavor. As a result, those
activities constitute the whole of the action that we consider for purposes of
determining the existence of a "project" for purposes of CEQA.
Clearly, these activities meet the first
test for a "project": whether there has been an "activity
directly undertaken by any public agency." (§ 21065, subd.
The second test for a "project"
is whether the activities have a "potential for resulting in either a
direct physical change in the environment, or a reasonably foreseeable indirect
physical change in the environment ... ." (Guidelines, § 15378, subd. (a).) This test is addressed by respondents only with
reference to the lead abatement and range closure, which they attempt to
segregate from the whole of their action. Their myopic analysis is not convincing,
however, and we conclude that the whole of their action does have a potential
for direct or indirect physical change in the environment.
For example, the removal of the MJC Range has the potential to spread lead
contamination. If the removal involves the donation and transfer of some of the
salvageable portions of the firing range to Tuolumne, lead contamination could spread at
the removal site as well as the site receiving the salvageable portions. The
description contained in the reply brief of respondents illustrates this
potential: "As HMS explained, cars driving on lead-contaminated soil could
lift lead-contaminated dust into the air. Students and staff walking through
the area could pick up lead contamination on their shoes and clothing, potentially
spreading it throughout the campus or taking it to their homes." This
summary of matters in the administrative record shows that the physical removal
of the MJC Range has the potential for spreading
lead contamination, which is a direct physical change in the environment.
Whether this potential of lead contamination can be, or has been, avoided by
completing lead abatement first should be addressed in an initial study.
Thus, the District's activities are a
"project" and should have been the subject of an initial
environmental study in accordance with Guidelines section 15063, unless those
activities were otherwise exempt. (See Guidelines, § 15061.) Because
respondents' arguments concerning exemptions and mootness
are based upon their inappropriately narrow characterization of the activity
included in the project, those issues are resolved without difficulty.
B. The Whole of the District's
Activities Were Not Exempt
The second issue arising in connection with
the preliminary review is "whether the action is nevertheless exempt from
CEQA review either by a statute or pursuant to a 'categorical exemption'
adopted by the Resources Agency." (Remy et al., Guide to the Cal.
Environmental Quality Act (CEQA), supra, at p. 80.)
Respondents argue that two separate
categorical exemptions apply in this case. First, Guidelines section 15322
exempts "the adoption, alteration, or termination of educational or
training programs which involve no physical alteration in the area affected or
which involve physical changes only in the interior of existing school or
training structures." Respondents' reliance on this exemption fails
because it is premised on an underinclusive view of
the activities constituting the project. The whole of the action involved in
this case includes the removal of the MJC Range and the transfer of operations to
the city range. The physical changes from the removal of the MJC Range alone go beyond changes to the
interior of a training structure. Consequently, the exemption does not apply.
Second, respondents argue that the lead
abatement activity is categorically exempt pursuant to Guidelines section 15330
which applies to "any minor cleanup actions taken to prevent, minimize,
stabilize, mitigate, or eliminate the release or threat of release of a hazardous
waste or substance which are small or medium removal actions costing $ 1
million or less."
As pointed out by ACE, this exemption may
cover the lead abatement portion of the project, but does not cover the whole
of the action that constitutes the project. Therefore, the District cannot rely
on this exemption to relieve it of its responsibility to undertake an initial
study of the project.
II. The Matter Is Not Moot
Respondents argue that this matter is moot
because the challenged act has been completed and a writ may not issue in a
CEQA case where there is no present controversy to be adjudicated.
An appeal is moot if it is impossible for
an appellate court to grant an appellant any effectual relief. ( Eye Dog
Foundation v. State Board of Guide Dogs for the Blind (1967) 67 Cal.2d 536,
541 [63 Cal. Rptr. 21, 432 P.2d 717]; In re Joel
H. (1993) 19 Cal.App.4th 1185, 1193 [23 Cal. Rptr.
2d 878].) This rule of law was applied by this court in Woodward Park
Homeowners Assn. v. Garreks, Inc. (2000) 77
Cal.App.4th 880 [92 Cal. Rptr. 2d 268], where we held
that a CEQA matter was not moot simply because the car wash project had been
completed and had begun operating. ( Id. at p. 888.) Effective relief
was possible because requiring the preparation of an environmental impact
report could result in modification or removal of the project. ( Id. at
Similarly, in this case there is a
possibility that directing the respondents to conduct an initial study may
result in a mitigated negative declaration or an environmental impact report
containing mitigation measures.
As with other arguments made by
respondents, the mootness argument fails because it
does not consider all of the activities properly included in the project.
Furthermore, the circumstances presented in this case are factually distinct
from those at issue in Hixon v. County of
Los Angeles (1974) 38 Cal. App. 3d 370 [113 Cal. Rptr.
433], which involved trees that had been cut down and replaced.
Accordingly, we determine this case is not
We hold in this case only that the
respondents have skipped an essential step in the implementation of their
decision to remove the MJC Range and transfer the operations previously
conducted there to another or other facilities. Before proceeding, respondents
must conduct an initial study. What will be the result of that study is not our
concern. Neither is the wisdom of respondents' decision to close and remove the
range our concern, and we emphatically disavow any attempt to second-guess that
decision. We require only that respondents comply with the mandates of CEQA.
The judgment filed January 31, 2003, denying the petition for writ of mandate is reversed, and
the matter is remanded to the superior court with directions to grant
appellant's petition for a writ of mandate directing the respondents to
undertake an initial environmental study of the project. Costs on appeal are
awarded to appellant.
Dibiaso, Acting P. J., and Gomes, J., concurred.
On March 4,
the opinion was modified to read as printed above.
Public Resources Code section 21000 et seq. All further statutory references
are to the Public Resources Code unless otherwise indicated.
n2 Mr. Clark was a petitioning party below.
He does not appear on the appeal.
n3 In all further citations, title 14,
section 15000 et seq. of the California Code of Regulations will be referred to
as the Guidelines.
n4 Guidelines section 15002, subdivision
(k)(1) states: "In the first step the lead agency examines the project to
determine whether the project is subject to CEQA at all." This sentence is
merely descriptive and not all inclusive, because the first step, i.e., the
preliminary review, does not necessarily involve a "lead agency" or a
"project" as those terms are defined elsewhere in the Guidelines.
(Quote Guidelines, §§ 15367, 15378.) Indeed, the sentence begs one of the
critical questions addressed in the preliminary review--whether a
n5 According to one commentator, "an
agency may have to make up to five threshold inquiries" in conducting a
preliminary review. (Remy et al., Guide to the Cal. Environmental Quality Act
(CEQA) (10th ed. 1999) p. 57.)
n6 In Plan for Arcadia, Inc. v.
City Council of Arcadia, supra, 42 Cal. App. 3d at page 726, the
shopping center construction, parking lot construction and the widening of an
adjacent portion of the street were regarded as a single project for purposes