City of Yorba Linda, Respondents.
Unincorporated association filed a petition for writ of mandate to compel the Local Agency Formation Commission of Orange County to set aside its approval of a proposal to annex 3,979 acres of unincorporated territory in northeastern Orange County to the city of Yorba Linda and to enjoin the city from proceeding with the annexation. The Orange County Superior Court, H. Walter Steiner, J., granted respondents' motion for summary judgment on the ground that quo warranto was the only means by which the validity of the annexation could be tested inasmuch as the annexation had been completed before the mandate proceeding was instituted, and petitioner appealed. The Court of Appeal, Tamura, J., held that the validity of a completed municipal annexation under the Municipal Organization Act of 1977 may be tested only by an in rem proceeding under the validating statute or by a quo warranto proceeding.
Robert M. Myers, Venice, for petitioner and appellant.
Rutan & Tucker, Leonard A. Hampel and Jeffrey M. Oderman, Santa Ana, for respondent City of Yorba Linda.
Adrian Kuyper, County Counsel, and James R. Flournoy, Deputy County Counsel, Santa Ana, for respondent Local Agency Formation Commission of Orange County.
TAMURA, Associate Justice.
This appeal concerns the proper method of testing the validity of a
completed city annexation where the challenge is grounded on an alleged
failure of the Local Agency Formation Commission to comply with the requirements
of the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA; Pub. Resources Code,
s 21000 et seq.) and the Knox-Nisbet Act (Gov.Code, s 54773 et seq.).
FN1 The Knox-Nisbet Act provides for the creation of a Local Agency Formation Commission in each county and defines its purposes and powers.Petitioner, an unincorporated association, filed a petition for writ of mandate to compel respondent Local Agency Formation Commission (LAFCO) of Orange County to set aside its approval of a proposal to annex 3,979 acres of unincorporated territory in northeastern Orange County to the City of Yorba Linda and to enjoin the city from proceeding with the annexation. Petitioner alleged that LAFCO failed to conduct an initial study to determine whether the project may have a significant effect on the environment as required by CEQA and failed to give consideration to the factors set forth in the Knox-Nisbet Act before approving the proposal. The trial court granted respondents' motion for summary judgment on the ground that quo warranto was the only means by which the validity of the annexation could be tested inasmuch as the annexation had been completed before the mandate proceeding was instituted. Petitioner appeals from the ensuing judgment for respondents.
FN2 The territory was uninhabited and all of the landowners had consented to the annexation.The annexation proceedings were conducted and completed pursuant to the provisions of the Municipal Organization Act of 1977 (Gov.Code, s 35000 et seq.; hereafter MOA). The city initiated the proceedings on June 5, 1978, by adopting a resolution requesting LAFCO approval of the proposed annexation. The resolution and supporting documents, including a negative declaration, were transmitted to LAFCO. The proposal was set for public hearing before LAFCO for July 26, 1978, on which date the hearing was continued to August 9, 1978. Among those who testified at the hearing on August 9 were several individuals who identified themselves as members of petitioner. At the conclusion of the hearing, LAFCO approved the proposal. LAFCO's resolution recited that the commission had considered the relevant factors, including those specified by the Knox-Nisbet Act, and had reviewed and considered the negative declaration issued by the city. On August 21, 1978, the city council adopted a resolution ordering the annexation and transmitted a certified copy to LAFCO. On August 22, 1978, the executive officer of LAFCO prepared, executed and recorded a certificate of completion. Under the terms of MOA, an annexation is completed and becomes effective as of the date of recordation of the certificate of completion. (Gov.Code, ss 35353, 35354.)
Petitioner filed the instant mandate proceeding on September 7, 1978.
Although no summons, order to show cause or alternative writ was ever issued,
in January 1979 respondents answered and moved for dismissal of the action
and for summary judgment on the following grounds: (1) An in rem proceeding
pursuant to chapter 9, title 10, part 2 of the Code of Civil Procedure
(Code Civ.Proc., s 860 et seq.; hereafter validating statute) is the exclusive
means by which the validity of a completed annexation under MOA may be
tested (Gov.Code, s 35005), and, therefore, petitioner's failure to prepare,
publish, serve and file proof of service of the summons in the form and
within the period required by the validating statute (Code Civ.Proc., s
863) compelled dismissal; (2) assuming the nonexclusivity of the remedy
provided by the validating statute, a quo warranto proceeding by the Attorney
General was the only other means by which the validity of the completed
annexation could have been tested; and (3) petitioner lacked standing to
maintain the action because it was brought without the authority or consent
of its members. Petitioner contended that inasmuch as its attack upon the
annexation was grounded on LAFCO's alleged failure to comply with CEQA
and the Knox-Nisbet Act and not for any violation of the provisions of
MOA, compliance with the validating statute was not required. Petitioner
further argued that quo warranto was not the exclusive remedy because annexation
had not been completed when the mandate proceeding was instituted.
FN3 The pertinent provisions of the CCP Validating Statute are as follows:
FN4 Government Code section 35005 provides: "An action to determine the validity of any city incorporation, municipal reorganization, or any city change of organization completed pursuant to this part shall be brought pursuant to Chapter 9 (commencing with Section 860) of Title 10 of Part 2 of the Code of Civil Procedure."At the hearing on the motions for dismissal and for summary judgment, it was established without contradiction that the annexation had been completed more than two weeks before petitioner filed its mandate petition. In the circumstances, the court ruled that quo warranto was the exclusive means by which the validity of the annexation could be tested and granted respondents' motion for summary judgment.
On this appeal, petitioner contends that although the annexation proceedings were completed before the mandate petition was filed, neither quo warranto nor an action pursuant to the validating statute was the exclusive remedy. Petitioner argues that inasmuch as the main attack upon LAFCO approval of the annexation proposal was grounded on CEQA violations, mandate was the procedure prescribed by CEQA to review LAFCO's action. Petitioner contends that Government Code section 35005 making the validating statute the procedure for testing the validity of a completed municipal annexation applies only where the attack is based on asserted violations of MOA and further, assuming the applicability of the validating statutes, that it would be improper to affirm the judgment for petitioner's failure to pursue that remedy because the trial court based its decision on the sole ground that quo warranto was the exclusive remedy and never passed on the question whether "good cause" may have existed for petitioner's failure to comply with the requirements of the validating statute.
For reasons expressed below, we have concluded that the validity of a completed municipal annexation under MOA may be tested only by an in rem proceeding under the validating statute or by a quo warranto proceeding. Since the remedy sought to be invoked was neither, the court properly granted summary judgment in favor of respondents.
Government Code section 35005 provides that any "action to determine the validity of any city incorporation, municipal reorganization, or any city change of organization completed pursuant to (MOA) shall be brought" pursuant to the provisions of the validating statute. (Emphasis supplied; Code Civ.Proc., s 860 et seq.) Code of Civil Procedure section 863 provides that if a validating action has not been brought by the public agency, any interested person may bring an action pursuant to the statute to determine the validity of the matter in question. The summons must be in a prescribed form and must be directed to all persons interested in the matter and to the public agency and must be published for the period and in the manner prescribed by the statute. (Code Civ.Proc., s 863.) If the person bringing the action fails to complete the publication of the summons and to give such other notice as the court may require and to file proof thereof "within 60 days from the filing of his complaint, the action shall be forthwith dismissed on the motion of the public agency unless good cause for such failure is shown by the interested person." (Code Civ.Proc., s 863.)
Apparently under the misapprehension that the annexation had not been
completed, petitioner disregarded the mandate of Government Code section
35005. Instead of bringing an in rem action under the validating statute,
it brought an in personam mandate proceeding. One of the grounds on which
respondents sought dismissal and summary judgment was petitioner's failure
to comply with the procedural requirements of the validating statute within
the period prescribed by Code of Civil Procedure section 863. Petitioner
nevertheless made no attempt to show "good cause" for failure to comply
with the validating statute or to seek relief from default for its failure
to do so. On the record before it, therefore, if the validating statute
governed, the trial court was required to dismiss the action pursuant to
Code of Civil Procedure section 863. (Community Redevelopment Agency
v. Superior Court, 248 Cal.App.2d 164, 174, 56 Cal.Rptr. 201.)
FN5 In its points and authorities in opposition to the motion to dismiss and for summary judgment, petitioner argued that mandate was the proper remedy because the annexation had not been completed when the action was filed.Petitioner contends, however, that it was not required to proceed under the validating statute because the attack upon LAFCO's approval of the annexation proposal was based on CEQA violations. The contention lacks merit. If the annexation had not been completed as petitioner mistakenly thought, the mandate procedure utilized by petitioner would have been proper. (See Bozung v. Local Agency Formation Com., 13 Cal.3d 263, 271-272, 118 Cal.Rptr. 249, 529 P.2d 1017.) But since the annexation was completed and effective before the action was filed, the only method of testing the validity of the annexation, whatever the basis for the challenge, was either an action in compliance with the validating statute or a quo warranto proceeding by the Attorney General.
Important policy considerations underlie the MOA requirement that a
completed annexation be tested by an in rem proceeding under the validating
statute. A uniform procedure for prompt resolution of the validity of a
completed annexation by an in rem action is necessary in order to settle
any questions respecting the city's jurisdiction over the annexed territory,
including any uncertainties respecting the applicable land use regulations,
or the city's responsibility to provide police, fire and other municipal
services to the area. The procedure prescribed by the validating statute
assures due process notice to all interested persons and settles the validity
of the annexation once and for all by a single lawsuit.
FN6 An action under the validating statute is "in the nature of a proceeding in rem." (s 860.)Petitioner argues that CEQA governs the nature of the action to be utilized because it is a special statute whose provisions prevail over the general validating statute. In the first place, while CEQA prescribes the scope of judicial review (Pub. Resources Code, ss 21168, 21168.5), it does not make mandamus the exclusive procedure by which the validity of a governmental action may be challenged for alleged violation of its provisions. Attacks upon governmental actions on CEQA grounds have been mounted and considered in actions for injunction (e. g., People v. County of Kern, 39 Cal.App.3d 830, 115 Cal.Rptr. 67; Residents Ad Hoc Stadium Committee v. Board of Trustees, 89 Cal.App.3d 274, 152 Cal.Rptr. 585), and declaratory relief (e. g., Cooper v. County of Los Angeles, 49 Cal.App.3d 34, 122 Cal.Rptr. 464; Residents Ad Hoc Stadium Committee v. Board of Trustees, supra ). In Bozung v. Local Agency Formation Com., supra, 13 Cal.3d 263, 271-272, 118 Cal.Rptr. 249, 529 P.2d 1017, the Supreme Court implicitly recognized quo warranto proceedings as a means of testing the validity of a municipal annexation on CEQA grounds. More importantly, it is the nature of the governmental action being challenged rather than the basis for the challenge that determines the procedure to be utilized. Although grounded on alleged violation of CEQA, petitioner's action is one seeking to invalidate a completed municipal annexation; it is not just an action to review and set aside LAFCO approval of a proposed annexation. Petitioner should have proceeded under the validating statute and its action was subject to dismissal for failure to do so.
FN7 Petitioner contends that where there is a conflict between CEQA and the provisions of the validating statute the former should prevail because it is a special statute, citing Walters v. County of Plumas, 61 Cal.App.3d 460, 469, 132 Cal.Rptr. 174, where the court stated by way of a dictum that the statute of limitations prescribed in CEQA would take precedence over the general statute of limitations in the validating statute. In the case at bench, there is no statute of limitations issue; respondents do not contend that petitioner's action was not timely filed. Nor is there any conflict between the two statutes respecting the procedural requirements of the validating statute. We find no inconsistency in the requirements of the two statutes. It should also be noted that Walters was not an action to test the validity of a completed city annexation. It is doubtful whether the Walters dictum should extend to such actions.Petitioner's contention that the judgment may not be affirmed on the ground it failed to follow the procedure prescribed by the validating statute because that was not the ground on which the trial court based its decision is likewise without merit. It is a settled principle of appellate review that a trial court's ruling or decision which is correct in law will not be disturbed on appeal merely because it was given for a wrong reason; if the decision is " 'right upon any theory of the law applicable to the case, it must be sustained regardless of the considerations which may have moved the trial court to its conclusion.' " (D'Amico v. Board of Medical Examiners, 11 Cal.3d 1, 19, 112 Cal.Rptr. 786, 799, 520 P.2d 10, 23, quoting Davey v. Southern Pacific Co., 116 Cal. 325, 329, 48 P. 117; Estate of Cooke, 57 Cal.App.3d 595, 605, 129 Cal.Rptr. 354.) As we pointed out earlier, one of respondents' grounds for the motion to dismiss and for summary judgment was petitioner's failure to proceed under the validating statute. Although petitioner had the opportunity to do so, it did not seek to be relieved from its failure to comply with the validating statute or make any attempt to show good cause for noncompliance. Furthermore unlike City of Ontario v. Superior Court, 2 Cal.3d 335, 345, 85 Cal.Rptr. 149, 466 P.2d 693, the question whether the validating statute applies to the present case does not present "a complex and debatable" issue. Government Code section 35005 is clear and explicit; it provides that an action to "determine the validity of . . . any city change of organization completed pursuant to this part shall be brought pursuant to Chapter 9 (commencing with Section 860) of Title 10 of Part 2 of the Code of Civil Procedure." (Emphasis supplied.)
The only means other than the validating statute by which the completed
annexation could have been tested was the traditional quo warranto proceeding
by the Attorney General in the name of the People of the State of California.
FN8 Code of Civil Procedure section 803 provides:Before the enactment of MOA, quo warranto was the only means by which the validity of an annexation could be tested after it had been completed. (People v. City of Palm Springs, 51 Cal.2d 38, 41, 331 P.2d 4; Amer. Distl. Co. v. City Council, Sausalito, 34 Cal.2d 660, 667, 213 P.2d 704; City of Campbell v. Mosk, 197 Cal.App.2d 640, 646, 17 Cal.Rptr. 584; Hazelton v. City of San Diego, 183 Cal.App.2d 131, 135, 6 Cal.Rptr. 723.) Once the annexation has been completed, "the territory becomes incorporated within the city and a corporation de facto is created and 'none but the state can call its existence in question.' (Citation.) A private individual has no legal capacity to attack the fixing or extension of municipal limits. His sole remedy is in quo warranto." (Hazelton v. City of San Diego, supra, 183 Cal.App.2d 131, 135, 6 Cal.Rptr. 723, 726.) The foregoing principle was unaffected by the enactment of CEQA. (See Bozung v. Local Agency Formation Com., supra, 13 Cal.3d 263, 271-272, 118 Cal.Rptr. 249, 529 P.2d 1017.)
Although MOA now affords an interested private individual a means of testing the validity of a completed annexation, this does not preclude a quo warranto proceeding. The availability of other statutory remedies ordinarily does not foreclose a proceeding in the nature of quo warranto by the Attorney General. (See Powers v. Hitchcock, 129 Cal. 325, 326-327, 61 P. 1076; Citizens Utilities Co. v. Superior Court, 56 Cal.App.3d 399, 405, 128 Cal.Rptr. 582.) The proceeding brought by petitioner was manifestly not one in quo warranto.
Petitioner having failed to pursue either of the two proper remedies to test the validity of the completed annexation, the court properly granted respondents' motion for summary judgment.
GARDNER, P. J., and KAUFMAN, J., concur.