Appendix B
List of Recent, Current, and Planned
Relevant Research Activities

This appendix includes a preliminary list of research activities related to CSS and NCCP activities. Undoubtedly some research work may not be represented here because organizers of this list were not aware of some work. Those engaged in relevant research are encouraged to contact the address (email, street, or phone) noted on the title page and describe their work so it may be included.

First the activities that are relevant to the managers' information needs are organized in a structure parallel to the needs listed in Appendix A of the Core Group Report. Beginning on page B-6, a more comprehensive list of activities are contained in a structure described below. Both lists are preliminary compilations and are not be construed as complete listings. They will continue to expand as new research activities are identified and initiated.

The Natural Communities Conservation Planning (NCCP) program has been interested in the development of new research information to support the program since the development of the original conservation guidelines. The NCCP program wishes to resolve as much as possible unanswered questions that bear on the conservation of the coastal sage scrub (CSS) community and associate flora and fauna. The Scientific Review Panel (1993) recommended six interactive research tasks.

  1. Biogeography and inventory of CSS.

  2. Trends in biodiversity.

  3. Dispersal characteristics and landscape corridor use.

  4. Demography and population viability analysis.

  5. Surveys and autecological studies of sensitive animals and plants.

  6. Genetic studies.

Research Activities Relevant to Decision Makers' Information Needs

The following pages include research that is relevant to managers' information needs described in pages 5-12 of the Core Group Report. Some of the research activities are referenced only by the number assigned to them in the comprehensive list of activities starting on page A-6.

While the research activities listed below are relevant to a specific information need, it should not be assumed that the information produced by that research would completely address that need. In most cases, the research would provide some relevant information, but not enough to effectively inform the decision of a manager or policy maker.

A. Fire:

  1. A.1.a(1), A.1.2.b.(1)-(3), (5), B.2.c.(7), Atwood, J. L., D. R. Bontrager, and A. L. Gorospe. Use of refugia by California Gnatcatchers displaced by habitat loss. CalGnat Proceedings, in press., B.2.e.(1), G.3

  2. a. None
    b. None
    c. None
    d. None
    e. None

  3. None

  4. None

B. Inventory and Monitoring:

  1. None

  2. None

  3. None

  4. None

C. Species Persistence/Demographics/Genetics:

  1. Akakaya, H. R. and J. L. Atwood. A habitat-based metapopulation model of the California gnatcatcher. Conservation Biology, in press.

  2. Akakaya, H. R. and J. L. Atwood. A habitat-based metapopulation model of the California gnatcatcher. Conservation Biology, in press.

  3. None

  4. None

  5. None

  6. Akakaya, H. R. and J. L. Atwood. A habitat-based metapopulation model of the California gnatcatcher. Conservation Biology, in press.

  7. Work by Ogden Environmental associated with (1) MSCP, and (2) Otay Ranch

  8. Work by Bob Zink and colleagues on California Gnatcatcher genetics work by ____ (San Diego State) on Cactus Wren genetics

D. Administration, Socioeconomic, Implementation:

  1. None

  2. For public use, some work has been done by the USFS Fire Lab., U.C. Berkeley, and the National Park Service

  3. None

  4. None

  5. None

E. Exotics and Invasives:

  1. B.2.c.(3); B.2.c.(13); Yosida: competition for nitrogen between Artemesia and annual grasses; Allen, Minnich, Bytnerowics, Grant: nitrogen, fire, and invasive annuals in CSS; much literature on exotics and invasives in systems other than CSS; monograph for California's exotic animals; Native Plant Society exotic threat list; CALEPPC; CA noxious week lists

  2. A.2.b.(4)
    a. None
    b. None
    c. None

  3. B.2.c.(2); B.2.d.(2); B.2.c.(3); B.2.c.(13); Yosida: competition for nitrogen between Artemesia and annual grasses; Allen, Minnich, Bytnerowics, Grant: nitrogen, fire, and invasive annuals in CSS; ongoing research for all these species documented in CALEPPC

  4. Yosida: competition for nitrogen between Artemesia and annual grasses; Allen, Minnich, Bytnerowics, Grant: nitrogen, fire, and invasive annuals in CSS; CALEPPC on biological control of species such as tamarisk and giant cane

  5. Crooks: native carnivores/feral cats

  6. None

F. Public Use:
  1. a. None
    b. None
    c. None
    d. Atwood, J. L., S. H. Tsai. C. H. Reynolds, J. C. Luttrell, and M. R. Fugagli. Factors affecting estimates of California Gnatcatcher use areas. CalGnat Proceedings, in press.

  2. a. None
    b. B.2.c.(22)
    c. California Gnatcatcher Impact Evaluation and Mitigation for Linear Utilities Construction and Maintenance, from Impact Evaluation Criteria Workshop for the California Gnatcatcher, San Diego Co. Water Authority, 1993.
    d. B.2.c.(25)
    e. None

  3. None

G. Biophysical Processes/Ecosystem Function:

  1. Allen

  2. None

  3. a. None
    b. Work by John Lovio (?) at San Diego State; work by John Rotenberry
    c. None

H. Reserve Design/Biogeography/Landscape Processes:

  1. Akakaya, H. R. and J. L. Atwood. A habitat-based metapopulation model of the California gnatcatcher. Conservation Biology, in press; work by Ogden Environmental (Pat Mock) connected with the MSCP program

  2. B.2.c.(4); Akakaya, H. R. and J. L. Atwood. A habitat-based metapopulation model of the California gnatcatcher. Conservation Biology, in press.

  3. B.2.c.(4); work by Ogden Environmental (Pat Mock) connected with the MSCP program

  4. Soule; Case

  5. None

I. Restoration and Enhancement:

  1. B.2.c.(9)

  2. None

  3. B.2.c.(9); B.2.c.(19); B.2.c.(28); B.2.c.(32)

  4. B.1.b.(1); B.1.b.(2); B.2.c.(28); B.2.c.(32)

  5. B.2.c.(19); B.2.c.(28); B.2.c.(32)

  6. B.1.b.(1); B.1.b.(2); B.2.c.(28); B.2.c.(32)

  7. B.2.c.(32)

  8. None

  9. Much literature outside CSS data base

  10. B.2.c.(9); nearly all studies dealing with estimates of gnatcatcher reproductive success, especially including those by Braden, Atwood, Erickson, Deely, Mock, etc. etc. etc.

  11. None

  12. None

J. General Species, Program-Wide, and Regional Concerns:

  1. Work by Doug Bolger

  2. Work by Jon Rotenberry

  3. None

K. Historical Land Use/Succession:

  1. B.1.b.(3); B.2.c.(34); Allen, Davis and Hiedl; Marquez and Allen; Zink and Allen; Marquez; Davis, Eliason, and Allen; Beyers

  2. None

L. Habitat Management Practices:

  1. a. None
    b. None
    c. None

  2. None

  3. None

M. Influence of Adjacent Land Uses:

  1. a. None
    b. Scott, Minnich, Allen
    c. None
    d. None
    e. None

  2. a. Some work on nitrogen and on off-road vehicles
    b. None
    c. None
    d. B.2.c.(2), Crooks on carnivores
    e. B.2.d.(2), B.3.(2)
    f. None
    g. None

  3. B.2.c.(14), B.2.c.(14), B.2.c.(22), B.2.c.(32)

Comprehensive List of Coastal Sage Scrub Research Activities

This following list represents both specific NCCP initiated research as well as other associated research that would assist in the NCCP planning process. The list includes those research activities that are relevant to the managers' information needs and those activities that are not. This is an active "on-going draft compilation" list that will be updated through the review of this report and as an ongoing effort. The list should not be considered inclusive to all related NCCP research activities.

This information has been organized to provide a "map" to all the topics of research that would be of interest. The following is a proposed method of organizing and separating individual efforts into topics:

  1. Physical Sciences
      A.1. Earth Sciences
        A. 1. a. Soils
      A. 2. Physical Processes
        A. 2. a. Erosion A. 2. b. Fire

  2. Biological Sciences
      B. 1. Plants
        B. 1. a. General
        B. 1. b. Restoration
      B. 2. Animals
        B. 2. a. Mammals
        B. 2. b. Birds
        B. 2. c. Reptiles and Amphibians
        B. 2. d. Invertebrates
      B. 3. Ecosystems
        B. 3. a. Ecological processes
        B. 3. b. Habitat/Vegetation Communities
        B. 3. c. Invasive and exotic species
  3. Social Sciences
  4. Technology/tools

The following organization includes 71 research or monitoring programs that we are aware of currently. This is an ongoing process of discovery, more projects that others know about would be welcome. Some projects are repeated in this list if they address more than one major topic.

A. PHYSICAL SCIENCES

    A. 1. EARTH SCIENCES

      A. 1. a. SOILS

A. 1. a. (1). Interaction of nitrogen eutrophication and fire on invasive annuals in California coastal sage shrublands on the Southwestern Riverside County Multi-Species Ecological Reserve

Principal: Edith Allen (Tel.909-787-2123), University of California, Riverside, CA 92521.

Co-Principal: Richard Minnich, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521.

      A. 1. d. PUBLIC USE

A. 1. d. (1). Factors affecting estimates of California Gnatcatcher use areas.

Atwood, J.L., S.H. Tsai, C.H. Reynolds, J.C. Luttrell, and M.R. Fugagli. Factors affecting estimates of California Gnatcatcher use areas. CalGnat Proceedings, in press.

    A. 2. PHYSICAL PROCESSES

      A. 2. a. EROSION

      A. 2. b. FIRE

A. 2. b. (1). Post-fire recovery of California coastal sage scrub (sites in San Diego, Orange, and Riverside Counties)

Principal: Jan L. Beyers, USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Forest Fire Laboratory, 4955 Canyon Crest Drive, Riverside, CA 92507;(909)276-6673; FAX(909)276-6426.

Co-Principal: William O. Wirtz, II, Department of Biology, Pomona College, Claremont, CA 91711-6339;(909)621-8606 or 621-8555 ext.2950,FAX(909)621-8878.

Objective: To investigate changes in plant species composition and vegetation structure during managed and non-managed post-fire recovery in coastal sage scrub, including seed bank composition, and to identify the relationship of small mammal, bird, and reptile population structure to post-fire plant succession. Results of this study should aid agencies in making post-fire management decisions for coastal sage scrub.

Study Plan: Research has been underway at two sites since July 1992. Initial studies focused on Camp Pendleton; several other locations have been added in the beginning of calendar year 1995. Current study locations (as September 1994) include Lake Mathews in Riverside County and the San Diego Wild Animal Park and the upper San Diego River in San Diego County. Other locations being explored include Casper Regional Park, Orange County and Domenigoni Reserve, Riverside County.

A. 2. b. (2). Demographic patterns of post-fire recovery in coastal sage scrub and chaparral on the Southwestern Riverside County Multi-Species Ecological Reserve

Principal: Jon Keeley, Department of Biology, Occidental College, Los Angeles, CA 90041. Tel. 213-259-2898, FAX 213-341-4974 e mail chap@oxy.edu

Objective: Assess the response of chaparral and coastal sage scrub plant communities to fire. A large number of sample sites are being investigated to determine the variation in response based on plant species composition and various physical environmental parameters.

A. 2. b. (3). Post-fire ecological study on the Southwestern Riverside County Multi-Species Ecological Reserve

Principal: John O'Leary, Department of Geography, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182-4493. Tel.619-594-5511

Co-Principal: Robin Wells, The Nature Conservancy, Santa Rosa Plateau, Riverside County, CA. Tel.909-699-1856.

Objective: Tracking long-term patterns of species diversity, plant demography, and resilience at a range of ecological scales (domains). This research intends to provide quantitative information that describes post-burn reproductive strategies of a variety of coastal sage scrub plant associations.

Study plan: Research is being conducted in three main locations where fire has recently occurred; the Laguna fire area in coastal Orange County, the Shipley Reserve in southwestern Riverside County, and east of the Wild Animal Park. A total of 44 replicate plots, 25 X 25 m., have been established. Each 625 square meter plot has nested within it four 10 X 10 m. and twenty eight 1 X 1 m. subplots. Visual examination of plant cover, species composition, and plant structure is recorded after spring vs. fall burns. Plans are to collect data for at least five years to follow post-burn vegetation succession.

A. 2. b. (4). Interaction of nitrogen eutrophication and fire on invasive annuals in California coastal sage shrublands on the Southwestern Riverside County Multi-Species Ecological Reserve

Principal: Edith Allen (Tel.909-787-2123), University of California, Riverside, CA 92521.

Co-Principal: Richard Minnich, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521.

A. 2. b. (5). Effects of fire on the ecology of the California Gnatcatcher, Polioptila californica, California sage scrub communities. 1995 Symposium on the Biology of the California Gnatcatcher.

Principals: Wirtz, II, William O., and Audrey L. Mayer. Dept. Biol., Pomona College, Claremont, CA 91711.

B. BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

B. (1). Bibliographies on coastal sage scrub and related malacophyllous shrublands of other Mediterranean-type climates. 1994. California Wildlife Conservation Bulletin.

Principals: John F. O'Leary, Sandra A. DeSimone, Dennis D. Murphy, Peter F. Brussard, Michael S. Gilpin, and Reed F. Noss.

Objective: Comprehensive bibliography on aspectes of coastal sage scrub. 1) Animals 2)Autecology 3)Biogeography, Evolution, and Systematics 4) Community Composition, Distribution, and Classification 5) Comparisons with other malacophyllous shrublands in Mediterranean climates 6) Conservation, Restoration, and Management, 7) Fire, Diversity, and Succession 8) Maps 9) Mediterranean systems (malacophyllous only) of other regions 10) Morphology, Phenology, and Physiology 11) Mosaics: coastal sage scrub/chaparral or grasslands 12) Productivity and Nutrient Use 13) Soils and Water Resources.

    B. 1. PLANTS

      B. 1. a. GENERAL

B. 1. a. (1). Post-fire recovery of California coastal sage scrub (sites in San Diego, Orange, and Riverside Counties)

Principal: Jan L. Beyers, USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Forest Fire Laboratory, 4955 Canyon Crest Drive, Riverside, CA 92507;(909)276-6673; FAX(909)276-6426.

Co-Principal: William O. Wirtz, II, Department of Biology, Pomona College, Claremont, CA 91711-6339;(909)621-8606 or 621-8555 ext.2950,FAX(909)621-8878.

Objective: To investigate changes in plant species composition and vegetation structure during managed and non-managed post-fire recovery in coastal sage scrub, including seed bank composition, and to identify the relationship of small mammal, bird, and reptile population structure to post-fire plant succession. Results of this study should aid agencies in making post-fire management decisions for coastal sage scrub.

Study Plan: Research has been underway at two sites since July 1992. Initial studies focused on Camp Pendleton; several other locations have been added in the beginning of calendar year 1995. Current study locations (as September 1994) include Lake Mathews in Riverside County and the San Diego Wild Animal Park and the upper San Diego River in San Diego County. Other locations being explored include Casper Regional Park, Orange County and Domenigoni Reserve, Riverside County.

B. 1. a. (2). Demographic patterns of post-fire recovery in coastal sage scrub and chaparral on the Southwestern Riverside County Multi-Species Ecological Reserve

Principal: Jon Keeley, Department of Biology, Occidental College, Los Angeles, CA 90041. Tel. 213-259-2898, FAX 213-341-4974 e mail chap@oxy.edu

Objective: Assess the response of chaparral and coastal sage scrub plant communities to fire. A large number of sample sites are being investigated to determine the variation in response based on plant species composition and various physical environmental parameters.

B. 1. a. (3). Post-fire ecological study on the Southwestern Riverside County Multi-Species Ecological Reserve

Principal: John O'Leary, Department of Geography, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182-4493. Tel.619-594-5511

Co-Principal: Robin Wells, The Nature Conservancy, Santa Rosa Plateau, Riverside County, CA. Tel.909-699-1856.

Objective: Tracking long-term patterns of species diversity, plant demography, and resilience at a range of ecological scales (domains). This research intends to provide quantitative information that describes post-burn reproductive strategies of a variety of coastal sage scrub plant associations.

Study plan: Research is being conducted in three main locations where fire has recently occurred; the Laguna fire area in coastal Orange County, the Shipley Reserve in southwestern Riverside County, and east of the Wild Animal Park. A total of 44 replicate plots, 25 X 25 m., have been established. Each 625 square meter plot has nested within it four 10 X 10 m. and twenty eight 1 X 1 m. subplots. Visual examination of plant cover, species composition, and plant structure is recorded after spring vs. fall burns. Plans are to collect data for at least five years to follow post-burn vegetation succession.

B. 1. a. (4). Smooth Tarplant studies on the Domenigoni Valley floor on the Southwestern Riverside County Multi-Species Ecological Reserve

Principal: Patricia Gordon-Reedy (Tel.619-458-9044 FAX 619-458-0943) Ogden Environmental and Energy Services, 5510 Morehouse Drive, San Diego, CA 92121.

B. 1. a. (5). Local variation in floristics and distributional factors in California coastal sage scrub.

Principals: Sandy DeSimone and Paul Zedler (Tel.619-594-2896,FAX619-594-5676), San Diego State University, San Diego, CA.

Objective: Describe the floristic variation and the determining factors for it in coastal sage scrub.

B. 1. a. (6). Alluvial Fan Sage Scrub Conservation Plan Study

Prinicipals: Joan M. Stafford (Tel.909-869-2697 FAX 909-869-4460), Assoc. Professor, Dept. of Landscape Architecture; Ronald

Quinn (909-869-4056), Professor, Dept. of Biology, California State Polytechnic University, 3801 W. Temple Avenue, Pomona, CA 91768.

Objective: Collate existing RAFSS information.

      B. 1. b. RESTORATION

B. 1. b. (1). Five year rare plant monitoring study on the Southwestern Riverside County Multi-Species Ecological Reserve

Principal: Norm Ellstrand, Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 ........................

Objective: a) rare plant surveys for location, abundance, and distribution and b) relocation planting success

B. 1. b. (2). Genetics and fitness of transplantation in coastal sage scrub on the Southwestern Riverside County Multi-Species Ecological Reserve

Principal: Norm Ellsworth, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521.

Co-Principals: Montalvo and Conrad...

B. 1. b. (3). Use of restored coastal sage scrub habitat by California Gnatcatchers in a park setting. 1995 Symposium on the Biology of the California Gnatcatcher.

Principals: Karen L. Pluff, Adrian Wolf, and Robb Hirsch; CA Dept. of Parks and Recreation, 8885 Rio San Diego Dr. #270, San Diego, CA 92108, and CA Dept. of Parks and Recreation, Crystal Cove S.P., 8471 N. Coast Hwy., Laguna Beach, CA 92651.

B. 1. b. (4). A Test of Enhancement Methods For OHV-disturbed Diegan Coastal Sage Scrub.

Objective: To enhance and restore 5 acres of disturbed remnants of three sensitive communities: Diegan Coastal Sage Scrub, San Diego Mesa Vernal Pool (San Diego Mesa Hardpan), and Native Grassland. Various treatment combinations will be employed to assess most effective, low cost methods for enhancing or restoring these vegetation types.

Principal: Ellen T. Bauder, Department of Biology, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182-4614. phone: 916-594-5032, FAX 916-594-5676, email ebauder@sunstroke.sdsu.edu

B. 1. b. (5). Salvage of Coastal Sage Scrub Habitats in Future Development Areas.

Objective: To transplant and re-assemble patches of adult CSS plants which include genetic rescue of CSS perennials, epiphytes, insect and arachnids, and mycorrhizae. This approach provides immediate habitat for target species and serves as a source of inoculum within larger matrices of imprinted or hydroseeded acreage. Numerous papers are in preparation.

Principal: P.A. Bowler, Dept. of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Irvine 92717; (714) 824-5183

Bowler, P.A., A. Wolf, H.V. Pham, M.A. Archer, A.S. Bak, M. Bedaux, A. Chhun, J.S. Crain, S. Feeney, A. Gloskowski, P. Golcher, C.J. Hodson, M.L. James, R.C. Johnson, M.S. Milane, V.H. Nguyen, R.S. Salazar, and C.R. Simonds. 1994. Transplanting Coastal Sage Scrub Seedlings from Natural Stands (California). Restoration and Management Notes 12(1): 87-88.

B. 1. b. (5). Fire resilience in coastal sage scrub within mitigation and restoration areas.

Objective: To determine the ability of created coastal sage scrub habitats to recover after fire and to exhibit the postfire successional characteristics of natural coastal sage scrub stands.

Principal: P.A. Bowler, Dept. of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Irvine 92717; (714) 824-5183. pabowler@uci.edu

B. 1. b. (6). Whole community restoration of coastal sage scrub with a focus upon the understory.

Objective: To develop techniques which will allow restorationists and mitigation efforts to be able to meaningfully introduce the understory in coastal sage scrub restoration and mitigation projects. A paper in is preparation about initial efforts.

Principal: P.A. Bowler, Dept. of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Irvine 92717; (714) 824-5183

B. 1. b. (7). The use of CSS restoration and mitigation sites as they develop and grow by reptiles, amphibians, small mammals and birds.

Principal: P.A. Bowler, Dept. of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Irvine 92717; (714) 824-5183 and Ted Case (619-534-2312)

B. 1. b. (8). Mitigation for cactus wren habitat loss in burned areas by translocating adult coastal cholla (Opuntia prolifera) and coastal prickly pear cactus (Opuntia littoralis).

Objective: Develop and document ways to move mature cacti to restoration areas within fire damaged or other arenas where adult plants can supplement existing conditions.

This experiment is underway and preliminary results should be available in early 1997.

Principal: P.A. Bowler, Dept. of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Irvine 92717; (714) 824-5183

B. 1. b. (9). Habitat design improvements for restoration and mitigation projects: Direct emulation of model sites.

Objective: Improve mitigation and restoration site design. Exact, to-scale modelling of coastal sage stands can be implemented, allowing a more ecologically based mitigation or restoration design. This has been implemented along the San Joaquin Tollroad on the UCI campus; Bowler and Demerjian (1996) have a paper in press describing an easy way to develop habitat-based design.

Bowler, P.A. and R. G. Demerjian. 1996. Digitized Photography as a Direct Template in Habitat Emulation Design. Restoration and Management Notes (in press).

Principal: P.A. Bowler, Dept. of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Irvine 92717; (714) 824-5183

    B. 2. ANIMALS

      B. 2. a. GENERAL

B. 2. a. (1). Post-fire recovery of California coastal sage scrub (sites in San Diego, Orange, and Riverside Counties)

Principal: Jan L. Beyers, USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Forest Fire Laboratory, 4955 Canyon Crest Drive, Riverside, CA 92507;(909)276-6673; FAX(909)276-6426.

Co-Principal: William O. Wirtz, II, Department of Biology, Pomona College, Claremont, CA 91711-6339;(909)621-8606 or 621-8555 ext.2950,FAX(909)621-8878.

Objective: To investigate changes in plant species composition and vegetation structure during managed and non-managed post-fire recovery in coastal sage scrub, including seed bank composition, and to identify the relationship of small mammal, bird, and reptile population structure to post-fire plant succession. Results of this study should aid agencies in making post-fire management decisions for coastal sage scrub.

Study Plan: Research has been underway at two sites since July 1992. Initial studies focused on Camp Pendleton; several other locations have been added in the beginning of calendar year 1995. Current study locations (as September 1994) include Lake Mathews in Riverside County and the San Diego Wild Animal Park and the upper San Diego River in San Diego County. Other locations being explored include Casper Regional Park, Orange County and Domenigoni Reserve, Riverside County.

B. 2. a. (2). Habitat affinities of less well known vertebrates in coastal sage scrub and the assorted variations of this type and adjoining chaparral types.

Principals: Dr. Ted Case (619-534-2312), herpetology/U.C. San Diego, Dr. John Rotenberry (909-787-3953) , Ornithology/U.C. Riverside, and Dr. Mary Price (909-787-3292), Mammalogy/U.C. Riverside. Work is being fully coordinated with companion research funded by the National Biological Service

Study Plan: Research has begun in the beginning of calendar year 1995. Six to twelve locations within San Diego, Orange, and Riverside Counties will be the site for intensive data collection. Each site will 10 to 30 trap arrays for herps, as well as transects for birds and small mammals.

      B. 2. b. MAMMALS

B. 2. b. (1). Autecological studies of sensitive coastal sage scrub target birds and small mammals (sites in San Diego, Orange, and Riverside Counties)

Principal: John T. Rotenberry, Natural Reserve System and Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521;(909)787-3953, FAX(909)787-4286

Co-Principal: Mary V. Price, Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521;(909)787-3292, FAX(909)787-4286.

Objective: To establish quantifiable baseline information on habitat associations and environmental variables that may be useful in predicting the presence or absence of a variety of birds and small mammals in coastal sage scrub of southern California.

B. 2. b. (2). Stephens' Kangaroo Rat habitat/management studies on the Southwestern Riverside County Multi-Species Ecological Reserve

Principal: Michael J. O'Farrell, O'Farrell Biological Consulting, 2912 N. Jones Blvd., Las Vegas, NV 89108;(702)658-5222; FAX(702)658-0809.

B. 2. b. (3). Ecology of the San Bernardino Kangaroo Rat and Los Angeles Pocket Mouse

Objective: 1. Gather existing information on historical distribution and establish a data base. 2. Identify current localities for both species 3. Describe habitat attributes. 4. Develop protocol for live capture.

Principal: Robert L. McKernan, San Bernardino County Museums, County of San Bernardino, 2024 Orange Tree Lane, Redlands, CA 92347 Tel.(909)798-8570;Fax:909-798-8585.

B. 2. b. (4). Distribution and Habitat Affinities of the Pacific Pocket Mouse

Objective: 1. Survey for other possible populations of species. 2. Describe habitat attributes at selected sites.

Principal: David J. Germano, Wildlife Consultant, 3520 Sewell Street, Bakersfield, CA 93312 Tel.(805) 589-7846.

B. 2. b. (5). Studies of Pacific Pocket Mouse, Los Angeles Pocket Mouse, Dulzura Pocket Mouse, San Diego Pocket Mouse, and San Diego Woodrat.

Objective: Field research to further understand geographic range, population density, and habitat requirements.

Principal: William O. Wirtz, II, Pomona College, Department of Biology, 609 N. College Avenue, Claremont, CA 91711-6339.....

B. 2. b. (6). Longterm, ongoing, monitoring of the UCI Ecological Preserve California gnatcatcher and cactus wren populations.

Principal: P.A. Bowler, Dept. of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Irvine 92717; (714) 824-5183

      B. 2. c. BIRDS

B. 2. c. (1). Autecological studies of sensitive coastal sage scrub target birds and small mammals (sites in San Diego, Orange, and Riverside Counties)

Principal: John T. Rotenberry, Natural Reserve System and Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521;(909)787-3953, FAX(909)787-4286

Co-Principal: Mary V. Price, Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521;(909)787-3292, FAX(909)787-4286.

Objective: To establish quantifiable baseline information on habitat associations and environmental variables that may be useful in predicting the presence or absence of a variety of birds and small mammals in coastal sage scrub of southern California.

B. 2. c. (2). Mechanisms behind the deterioration of habitat suitability in fragmented coastal sage scrub habitat: coastal horned lizard and rufus crowned sparrow on the Southwestern Riverside County Multi-Species Ecological Reserve

Principal: Ted J. Case (Tel.619-534-6231 FAX 619-534-7180),University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093.

Co-Principal: Doug Bolger (Tel. ............)

B. 2. c. (3). Cowbird trapping program on the Southwestern Riverside County Multi-Species Ecological Reserve

Principal: John and Jane Griffith...

B. 2. c. (3). Breeding success of the California gnatcatcher (Polioptila californica) in fragmented habitat surrounding Bonita Reservoir. 1995 Symposium on the Biology of the California Gnatcatcher.

Principals: Maria Andros and Mari Schroeder (Tel.714-261-5414, FAX714-261-8950) Chambers Group, Inc., 16700 Aston St., Irvine, CA 92619-7002.

B. 2. c. (4). Distribution, dispersal, and population dynamics of California Gnatcatchers on the Palos Verdes Peninsula, 1993 - 1995. 1995 Symposium on the Biology of the California Gnatcatcher. CalGnat symposium proceedings.

Objective: To evaluate levels of annual variation in basic reproductive parameters (including dispersal behavior), and to use this information in development of population viability models. Project (but not the cited publication) also addresses Cactus Wren population dynamics. Begun in 1993, the project is anticipated to continue at least through 1997, and probably beyond.

Principals: Jonathan L. Atwood, Michael R. Fugagli, Carol H. Reynolds, and James C. Luttrell. Manomet Observatory for Conservation Studies, P.O. Box 1770, Manomet, MA 02345.

B. 2. c. (5). Differences in size estimates of California Gnatcatcher use areas. 1995 Symposium on the Biology of the California Gnatcatcher.

Objective: To evaluate quantitative methods of measuring California Gnatcatcher use areas, and the possible role of such estimates in assessing various habitat alterations on gnatcatcher behavior patterns.

Principals: Jonathan L. Atwood, Sophia Tsai, Carol H. Reynolds, James C. Luttrell, and Michael R. Fugagli. Manomet Observatory for Conservation Sciences, P.O. 1770, Manomet, MA 02345.

B. 2. c. (6). Dispersal capabilities of the California Gnatcatcher: a landscape analysis of distribution data. 1995 Symposium on the Biology of the California Gnatcatcher.

Principals: Eric A. Bailey and Patrick J. Mock. Ogden Environmental and Energy Services Company, 5510 Morehouse Dr., San Diego, CA 92121.

B. 2. c. (7). Coastal sage scrub in relation to fire history and use by the California Gnatcatcher. 1995 Symposium on the Biology of the California Gnatcatcher.

Principals: Jan L. Beyers, Ginger C. Peña, and William O. Wirtz, II. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station, 4955 Canyon Crest Dr., Riverside, CA 92507, and Dept. Biology, Pomona College, Claremont, CA 91711.

B. 2. c. (8). Short-term increases in California Gnatcatcher breeding densities in habitat refugia located adjacent to the 1993 Laguna Canyon fire. 1995 Symposium on the Biology of the California Gnatcatcher.

Objective: To pre- and post-fire gnatcatcher densities in habitat refugia, including persistence of elevated population densities following fire displacement.

Principals: Jonathan L. Atwood (508-224-6521), David R. Bontrager (508-224-6521), Amy L. Gorospe, and Edward Almanza (714-376-0428). 80645 Lost Creek Rd., Dexter, OR 97431; Manomet Observatory for Conservation Sciences, P.O. Box 1770, Manomet, MA 02345; Dept. Biology, Cal. State University, Long Beach, CA 90824; and Almanza & Associates, 422 Glenneyre, Laguna Beach, CA 92651.

B. 2. c. (9). California Gnatcatcher use of mulefat and coastal sage scrub restorations as a wetlands margin dispersal corridor. 1995 Symposium on the Biology of the California Gnatcatcher.

Principal: Peter A. Bowler, Dept. of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Irvine, CA 92717.

B. 2. c. (10). Detectability of Polioptila californica californica (Coastal California Gnatcatcher) in western Riverside County during the breeding and non-breeding seasons. 1995 Symposium on the Biology of the California Gnatcatcher.

Principals: Gerald T. Braden, Eugene A. Cardiff, Stacey L. Love, and Mary Elizabeth Woulfe; San Bernardino County Museums, 2024 Orange Tree Lane, Redlands, CA 92374.

B. 2. c. (11). Habitat use versus availability for Polioptila californica californica (Coastal California Gnatcatcher) in western Riverside County during the 1992 - 1994 breeding seasons. 1995 Symposium on the Biology of the California Gnatcatcher.

Principals: Gerald T. Braden and Stacey L. Love; San Bernardino County Museums, 2024 Orange Tree Lane, Redlands, CA 92374.

B. 2. c. (12). Life history of Polioptila californica californica (Coastal California Gnatcatcher) in western Riverside County, CA. 1995 Symposium on the Biology of the California Gnatcatcher.

Principals: Gerald T. Braden, Robert L. McKernan, and Shawn Powell;

San Bernardino County Museums, 2024 Orange Tree Lane, Redlands, CA 92374 and 42 A Thayer Road, Greenfield, MA 01301.

B. 2. c. (13). Consequences of nest parasitism of Polioptila californica californica (Coastal California Gnatcatcher) by Molothrus ater (Brown-headed Cowbird) in western Riverside, CA. 1995 Symposium on the Biology of the California Gnatcatcher.

Principals: Gerald T. Braden, Robert L. McKernan, and Shawn Powell.; San Bernardino County Museums, 2024 Orange Tree Lane, Redlands, CA 92372, and 42 A Thayer Road, Greenfield, MA 01301.

B. 2. c. (14). Saving the habitat and losing the birds: adjacent habitats, management, and natural history of the California Gnatcatcher. 1995 Symposium on the Biology of the California Gnatcatcher.

Principals: Kurt F. Campbell, Richard A. Erickson, and Michael A. Patten; Campbell Biological Consulting, 600 Central Avenue, #118, Riverside, CA 92507-6512: LSA Assoc., One Park Plaza, Suite 500, Irvine, CA 92714; and Dept. Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521.

B. 2. c. (15). Assessing the value of the California gnatcatcher (Polioptila californica) as an indicator of bird species density. 1995 Symposium on the Biology of the California Gnatcatcher.

Principals: Mary K. Chase, John T. Rotenberry, and Michael D. Misenhelter; Dept. of Biology, University of California. Riverside, CA 92521.

B. 2. c. (16). Current status and history of the California gnatcatcher (Polioptila californica californica) in San Bernardino County. 1995 Symposium on the Biology of the California Gnatcatcher.

Principals: Liam H. Davis, Robert L. McKernan, and James S. Burns; California Department of Fish and Game, Natural Community Conservation Planning, 4949 Viewridge Avenue, San Diego, CA 92123, San Bernardino County Museums, County of San Bernardino, 2024 Orange Tree Lane, Redlands, CA 92347, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Carlsbad Field Office, 2730 Loker Avenue West, Carlsbad, CA 92008.

B. 2. c. (17). Home range size in the California gnatcatcher: determinants and its effect on reproductive success. 1995 Symposium on the Biology of the California Gnatcatcher.

Principal: Robyn J. Deeley, Dept. of Biology, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182.

B. 2. c. (18). An individual-based population model for the California gnatcatcher. 1995 Symposium on the Biology of the California Gnatcatcher.

Principals: Randall Downer and Jonathan L. Atwood, Manomet Observatory for Conservation Sciences, P.O. Box 1770, Manomet, MA 02345

B. 2. c. (19). An example of successful California gnatcatcher habitat creation. 1995 Symposium on the Biology of the California Gnatcatcher.

Principals: Richard A. Erickson and M.W. (Bill) O'Connell, LSA Associates, One Park Plaza, Suite 500, Irvine, CA 92714.

B. 2. c. (20). Four years of synchronous California gnatcatcher population fluctuations at two locations in coastal Orange County, California. 1995 Symposium on the Biology of the California Gnatcatcher.

Principals: Richard A. Erickson and Karen L. Pluff; LSA Associates, One Park Plaza, Suite 500, Irvine, CA 92714; and California State Parks, 8885 Rio San Diego Drive, Suite 270, San Diego, CA 92108.

B. 2. c. (21). Vegetation use by California gnatcatchers. 1995 Symposium on the Biology of the California Gnatcatcher.

Principals: Jennifer Ezovski, Tammy Stecher, and Eric J. Woehler, Dept. of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, UC Irvine, CA 91717.

B. 2. c. (22). Occurrence and management considerations of Coastal California gnatcatchers within and adjacent to highway rights-of-way. 1995 Symposium on the Biology of the California Gnatcatcher.

Principals: Peter Famolaro and Jeff Newman; Recon, 7460 Mission Valley Road, San Diego, CA and USFWS, 2370 Loker Avenue, Carlsbad, CA 92009.

B. 2. c. (23). The California gnatcatcher as an umbrella species. 1995 Symposium on the Biology of the California Gnatcatcher.

Principal: Scott Fleury, Dept. of Biology, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557.

B. 2. c. (24). Distribution and population estimates of the California gnatcatcher(Polioptilia californica) in Baja California, Mexico.

1995 Symposium on the Biology of the California Gnatcatcher.

Principals: Paul Fromer and Jeff Newman; RECON, San Diego, CA 92108, and USFWS, 2730 Loker Avenue, Carlsbad, CA 92009.

B. 2. c. (25). The breeding biology of the California gnatcatcher (Polioptilia californica) at Siphon Reservoir. 1995 Symposium on the Biology of the California Gnatcatcher.

Principals: J. Paul Glavin, Maria Andros, and Mari Schroeder, Chambers Group, Inc., 16700 Aston St., Irvine, CA 92619-7002.

B. 2. c. (26). Nesting behavior of the California gnatcatcher at Rancho San Diego and vicinity. 1995 Symposium on the Biology of the California Gnatcatcher.

Principals: Mary A. Grishaver, Patrick J. Mock, Kristine L. Preston, Eric A. Bailey, David F. King, and Lyndon B. Quon, Ogden Environmental and Energy Services Company, 5510 Morehouse Dr., San Diego, CA 92121.

B. 2. c. (27). A 1995 sighting of the California Gnatcatcher in Ventura County. 1995 Symposium on the Biology of the California Gnatcatcher.

Principals: Cynthia A. Jones and Ruben S. Ramirez, Michael Brandman Associates, 17310 Red Hill Ave., Suite 250, Irvine, CA 92714.

B. 2. c. (28). Results of a five-year monitoring study for a Habitat Conservation Plan (HCP) designed to protect an isolated Coastal California Gnatcatcher population: successful management of a small population and breeding success in revegetated habitats. 1995 Symposium on the Biology of the California Gnatcatcher.

Principals: David Levine, Natural Resource Consultants, 20 Cystal Cove, Laguna Beach, California 92651.

B. 2. c. (29). Energetic constraints to the distribution and abundance of the California Gnatcatcher. 1995 Symposium on the Biology of the California Gnatcatcher.

Principals: Patrick J. Mock, Ogden Environmental and Energy Services Co., 5510 Morehouse Dr., San Diego, CA 92121.

B. 2. c. (30). Habitat characteristics of California Gnatchatcher territories on Naval Air Station Miramar, California. 1995 Symposium on the Biology of the California Gnatcatcher.

Principals: John F. O'Leary (Tel.619-594-5511), Department of Geography, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182-4493.

B. 2. c. (31). California Gnatcatcher (Polioptila californica) Habitat Capability Index model for western Riverside County. 1995 Symposium on the Biology of the California Gnatcatcher.

Principals: W. Douglas Parley, Pacific Southwest Biological Services, Inc., P.O. Box 985, National City, CA 91951-0985.

B. 2. c. (32). California Gnatcatcher distribution in western Riverside County, California 1985-1995. 1995 Symposium on the Biology of the California Gnatcatcher.

Principals: W. Douglas Padley, Shana C. Dodd, and Paul A. Hamilton, Pacific Southwest Biological Services, Inc., P.O. Box 985, National City, CA 91951-0985.

B. 2. c. (33). The use of museum collections to reconstruct the historic breeding biology of the California Gnatcatcher. 1995 Symposium on the Biology of the California Gnatcatcher.

Principals: Michael A. Patten and Kurt F. Campbell. Dept. Of Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 and Tierra Madre Consultants, 1159 Iowa Ave., Suite E, Riverside, CA 92507: Campbell Biological Consulting, 600 Central Ave., #118, Riverside, CA 92507.

B. 2. c. (34). Use of restored coastal sage scrub habitat by California Gnatcatchers in a park setting. 1995 Symposium on the Biology of the California Gnatcatcher.

Principals: Karen L. Pluff, Adrian Wolf, and Robb Hirsch; CA Dept. of Parks and Recreation, 8885 Rio San Diego Dr. #270, San Diego, CA 92108, and CA Dept. of Parks and Recreation, Crystal Cove S.P., 8471 N. Coast Hwy., Laguna Beach, CA 92651.

B. 2. c. (35). California Gnatcatcher territorial and vocalization behavior at Rancho San Diego and Vicinity. 1995 Symposium on the Biology of the California Gnatcatcher.

Principals: Kristine Preston, Mary Grishaver, Patrick Mock, Eric Bailey, and David King. Ogden Environmental and Energy Services Company, 5510 Morehouse Dr., San Diego, CA 92121.

B. 2. c. (36). Molt and plumage variation by age and sex in the California and Black-tailed gnatcatchers. 1995 Symposium on the Biology of the California Gnatcatcher.

Principals: Peter Pyle and Philip Unitt; Point Reyes Bird Observatory., 4990 Shoreline Hwy., Stinson Beach, CA 94970, and San Diego Nat. Hist. Mus., P.O. Box 1390, San Diego, CA 92112.

B. 2. c. (37). Habitat preferences of the California Gnatcatcher in San Diego County. 1995 Symposium on the Biology of the California Gnatcatcher.

Principal: Ellen Raabe, USGS Center for Coastal Geology, 600 4th St. S, St. Petersburg, FL 33701.

B. 2. c. (38). Insect and plant assemblages of coastal sage scrub as indicators of habitat utilization by coastal California gnatcatchers. 1995 Symposium on the Biology of the California Gnatcatcher.

Principals: Richard Redak, John Rotenberry, Andy McCollum and Tom Scott; Dept. Entomology, Dept. Biology, and Dept. Earth Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521.

B. 2. c. (39). Nesting requirements of California Gnatcatchers. 1995 Symposium on the Biology of the California Gnatcatcher.

Principals: Julie Simonsen, Michelle Schroeder, and Eric J. Woehler, Dept. Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, UC Irvine, CA 92717.

B. 2. c. (40). Statistical considerations in the analysis of historical California Gnatcatcher data. 1995 Symposium on the Biology of the California Gnatcatcher.

Principal: John R. Skalski. Center for Quantitative Science, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-5230.

B. 2. c. (41). Variation and correlates of some nest-site and life-history traits in the California gnatcatcher. 1995 Symposium on the Biology of the California Gnatcatcher.

Principal: Keith W. Sockman, Dept. Biol., San Diego State University., San Diego, CA 92182.

B. 2. c. (42). Are computer-generated estimates of California gnatcatcher home range superior to hand drawn estimates made by biologists? 1995 Symposium on the Biology of the California Gnatcatcher.

Principals: Wayne D. Spencer, Patrick J. Mock, and Erik J. Pampalone, Ogden Environmental and Energy Services Co., 5510 Morehouse Dr., San Diego, CA 92121.

B. 2. c. (43). Distribution of the California Gnatcatcher within coastal sage scrub. 1995 Symposium on the Biology of the California Gnatcatcher.

Principal: Kenneth L. Weaver, 1113 Senwood Way, Fallbrook, CA 92028.

B. 2. c. (44). Effects of fire on the ecology of the California Gnatcatcher, Polioptila californica, California sage scrub communities. 1995 Symposium on the Biology of the California Gnatcatcher.

Principals: Wirtz, II, William O., and Audrey L. Mayer. Dept. Biol., Pomona College, Claremont, CA 91711.

B. 2. c. (45). Dynamics of a population of California Gnatcatchers, 1991 to 1995. 1995 Symposium on the Biology of the California Gnatcatcher.

Principals: Eric J. Woehler, Michelle Schroeder, Tammy Stecher, Julie Simonsen and Jennifer Ezovski, Dept. Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, UC Irvine, CA 92717.

B. 2. c. (46). The geography of mtDNA variation in the California Gnatcatcher (Polioptila californica). 1995 Symposium on the Biology of the California Gnatcatcher.

Principals: Robert M. Zink, Rachelle C. Blackwell, and George F. Barrowclough; Bell Museum, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, and Dept. of Ornithology, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024.

B. 2. c. (47). Demographics of California gnatcatchers in the San Joaquin Hills of Orange County.

Principals: Ed Almanza (Ed Almanza and Associates, 714-376-0488, Jonathan Atwood (Manomet Bird Observatory, 508-224-6521) and Dave Bontrager.

Purpose: This is item #4 in the NCCP program Conservation Guidelines research agenda. In order to simulate population performance of target species under different alternative reserve designs, time series data on basic biology is needed. Because of inherent annual variability in gnatcatcher birth, death, survivorship rates, etc., several years of data are needed to reduce relatively wide variance around mean population biology data. Data is also being used to create habitat suitability models.

Study Plan: Population density data have been collected in the San Joaquin Hills area for three years, 1996 is the first year for nest monitoring/reproductive success data. A minimum of twenty nests will be monitored from January to August. Current work is focused on the remaining unburned areas of the coastal portion of Orange County NCCP Coastal/Central planning area.

      B. 2. d. REPTILES AND/OR AMPHIBIANS

B. 2. d. (1). Autecological studies of sensitive coastal sage scrub target herptofauna (sites in San Diego, Orange, and Riverside Counties)

Principal Investigator: Ted J. Case, Department of Biology 0116, University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093;(619)534-6231,FAX(619)534-7180

Co-Principal Investigator: Robert N. Fisher, Department of Biology 0116, University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093;(619)534-6231,FAX(619)534-7108.

Objective: To investigate the community characteristics of the sensitive herptofauna traditionally associated with coastal sage scrub, by using a quantitative sampling methodology that will capture cryptic species along with the more obvious sensitive species. Results will determine the effects of reserve design, corridors, and edge effects on the sensitive species, and the correlation between sensitive herptofauna and sensitive birds and mammals to determine if the "umbrella species" concept will work for regional planning.

B. 2. d. (2). Mechanisms behind the deterioration of habitat suitability in fragmented coastal sage scrub habitat: coastal horned lizard and rufus crowned sparrow on the Southwestern Riverside County Multi-Species Ecological Reserve

Principal: Ted J. Case (Tel.619-534-6231 FAX 619-534-7180),University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093.

Co-Principal: Doug Bolger (Tel. .........) Dartmouth College

B. 2. d. (3). Conservation of the San Diego horned lizard on the Southwestern Riverside County Multi-Species Ecological Reserve

Principal: Allison Alberts (619-557-3955) Center for the Conservation of Endangered Species at San Diego Zoo.

Co-Principal: Lester Milroy (619-242-3370), Horned Lizard Conservation Society, 16377 Rancherias Rd., Apple Valley, CA 92307.

Objective: There is relatively little known about this subspecies. This study will use radio telemetry to track individual lizards and document key elements of life history: foraging requirements, microhabitat preferences, and reproductive biology so that regional land conservation strategies can be designed to reflect the needs of this taxon. These data are also intended to contribute to understanding of management requirements. All research is initially planned for on the Western Riverside County Multi-species Ecological Reserve. Radio tracking will document habitat use, home range size, etc. Blood samples will be taken to document genetic differences among the population and with the northern subspecies and hormonal changes through the annual cycle. If eggs are located than incubation studies will be conducted.

      B. 2. e. INVERTEBRATES

B. 2. e. (1). Arthropod recolonization of coastal sage scrub following fire on the Southwestern Riverside County Multi-Species Ecological Reserve>

Principal: Mark Redak...UC Riverside...

Co-Principal: John T. Rotenberry (Tel. 909-787-3953, FAX 909-787-4286), University of California, Riverside, CA 92521.

B. 2. e. (2). Insect and plant assemblages of coastal sage scrub as indicators of habitat utilization by coastal California gnatcatchers. 1995 Symposium on the Biology of the California Gnatcatcher.

Principals: Richard Redak, John Rotenberry, Andy McCollum and Tom Scott; Dept. Entomology, Dept. Biology, and Dept. Earth Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521.

    B. 3. ECOSYSTEMS

B. 3. (1). Preserve design parameters in the coastal sage scrub ecosystem of southern California.

Principals: Directed by Drs. Ted Case (U.C. San Diego), John Rotenberry, and Mary Price (U.C. Riverside). All work is being fully coordinated with companion research funded by California Department of Fish and Game.

Purpose: Item 2 and 3 of the NCCP program Conservation Guidelines research agenda recommend research to better understand the spatial characteristics of an adequate reserve design and the influences of reserve geometry on the viability of target species within the reserve.

Study Plan: Research has begun in the beginning calendar year 1995. The design will take advantage of the six to twelve locations within San Diego, Orange, and Riverside Counties for data collection on larger blocks of intact habitat. These study locations will be supplemented with additional locations selected to gather data specifically on the various effects of landscape fragmentation. Various landscape features will be investigated to help provide quantitative measurements of minimal reserve design parameters.

B. 3. (2). Protection of Natural Areas at the Santa Margarita Ecological Reserve.

Objective: Protect sensitive and rare habitats and research projects within the reserve: a. erect off-highway vehicle (OHV) closures at known areas of access to the reserve, b. protect rare communities and research projects such as a coastal sage scrub restoration site near the edge of the reserve, and c. generate educational materials and perimeter signs.

Principals: Paul Zedler, Director of Field Stations for San Diego State University (619-594-2896), Leslie Seiger, Post-Doctoral Fellow (619-594-7441), and Sedra Shapiro, Manager of Field Stations (619-594-5386 [SDSU lab] or 909-676-7571 [Santa Margarita Reserve]), San Diego State University, Biology Department, San Diego, CA 92182-4493.

        B. 3. a. ECOLOGICAL PROCESSES

        B. 3. b. HABITAT/VEGETATION COMMUNITIES

B. 3. b. (1). Historical decline of coastal sage scrub in the Riverside-Perris Plain, California. 1995 Symposium on the Biology of the California Gnatcatcher.

Principals: Richard A. Minnich, Dept. Earth Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521.